When two objects are in contact with each other, there is resistance to movement between them. This resistance to slipping is called traction Your vehicle has four traction points, one where each wheel is in contact with the ground.
These traction points are used to:
– put your vehicle in motion
– change the direction of your vehicle
– stop your vehicle
– The amount of traction is always limited, even in ideal driving conditions.
– There is more traction available when stopping in a straight line versus stopping while turning. The same is true for accelerating in a straight line versus while turning.
– The moment the traction requirement needs exceed the amount available, your vehicle will skid.
Factors Affecting Traction
Tires have grooved surfaces called treads which are designed to channel water, snow, mud etc through the tire and keep the rubber in contact with the road.
Tires must be kept to a proper level of inflation
The best traction is available on smooth, dry pavement. (0.9)
Any variation from perfect tires on a perfectly smooth surface results in a decrease in the friction factor.
The greater your speed, the greater the reduction in available friction.
As speed increases, the tire shape distorts resulting in less surface area touching the ground.
Greater speed also causes increased airflow under the vehicle, reducing the downward pressure put on the wheels by weight of the vehicle.
Incorrect wheel alignment, and improperly operating suspension and steering also reduce traction.